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The Vicksburg campaign was a major military offensive during the Civil War, which ended with the fall of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863.
The area around Vicksburg was of strategic importance to both North and South, since the city is situated on a hill, east of the Mississippi river.
For the South, the control over the city meant an unlimited supply of soldiers and supplies. For the North, the capture of the city was important, because it would drive a wedge between Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana, and the rest of the Confederacy, which depended on these states for fresh soldiers and supplies.
In the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had built forts at strategic points. These were gradually captured by the Union, from Illinois in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south. By 1862, the last remaining Southern forts were Vicksburg and Port Hudson.